Answered By: Colleen Bannon
Last Updated: Jun 12, 2015     Views: 15

Citing your sources is a two step process:

1. References list: create a list of sources you used in your paper.

2. In-Speech Citations: cite in your speech when you summarize, paraphrase, or directly quote an author's idea. Provide enough information in your speech so that your audience can easily access the source you are referencing.

The two most important elements of in-speech citations are: 

  • Name of the source, and 
  • the credentials of the person or organization

In-speech citation examples:

  • To cite a book, include author's name and credentials. "According to Michael Bernard, a history professor at Harvard University... "
  • To cite a website, include author's name and credentials, last updated date, name of the website. "The U.S. State Department website includes information... "

For more examples:

Guide to Oral Footnoting from the University of Washington

Citing In-Speech from Bucks Count Community College